For each piece of legislation, CBO prepares a statement indicating whether it contains private-sector mandates and, if so, whether the total annual cost of those mandates would exceed a threshold specified by UMRA in any of the first five fiscal years after the mandates would take effect. " -- especially when health insurance is the biggest political football in Washington?Drivers in New Hampshire who opt out of the insurance system have to post a bond or cash equal to the amount of damage caused in the crash.“Green infrastructure”—systems that use or mimic natural landscape processes to manage wastewater and stormwater—is having a heyday. State government strategies often refer to green infrastructure as an important tool in meeting pressing public needs.A 2013 Nature Conservancy survey of interest in green infrastructure, measured by the frequency of Google searches for the term, showed an abrupt spike beginning in about 2007. Many cities now incorporate the concept in land use and building requirements. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and environmental advocacy organizations endorse the benefits of green infrastructure. Department of Health and Human Services’ Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee describes physical inactivity as a contributing factor to premature death, high blood pressure, diabetes, colon cancer, and heart disease.Physical education programs offer an opportunity to provide physical activity to children in school and the instruction needed to establish and sustain an active lifestyle.
Private-sector mandates are also defined to include any reductions in the authorization of appropriations for federal aid to help entities in the private sector comply with existing mandates.
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In 1986, Congress enacted the Emergency Medical Treatment & Labor Act (EMTALA) to ensure public access to emergency services regardless of ability to pay.
Landscape architects and urban engineering consultants offer expertise in green infrastructure design while landowners and developers promote the green infrastructure aspects of local projects.
Green infrastructure has become a key component of federal Clean Water Act (CWA) requirements affecting cities and municipal sewer and water authorities.
However, conditions for receiving federal assistance or requirements for participating in a voluntary federal program are not considered mandates under UMRA.